What's in UK Tap Water?

person filling water bottle from kitchen tap

Water is an essential part of our daily lives. We rely on it for everything from drinking and cooking to cleaning and personal hygiene. But how often do we stop to think about the journey our water takes before it reaches our taps?

This article takes a deep dive into the world of tap water. We'll explore where it comes from, how it's treated, and why it might sometimes look or taste different. We'll also look at alternative sources of water such as filtered and bottled water, and how they compare to tap water. Whether you're curious about your water supply or considering a change, this guide aims to demystify the world of household water.

What's in UK tap water?

UK tap water contains a variety of minerals and chemicals that are used for maintaining its safety, taste, and health benefits. The most common minerals found in tap water are calcium and magnesium, which contribute to its hardness and offer health benefits such as bone strength. Sodium is also present in small volumes to maintain the body's fluid balance. The water may also contain trace amounts of iron, manganese, and copper, originating from the soil or the pipes.

Chemically, chlorine is sometimes added to the water as a disinfectant to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. You might also find fluorides, added intentionally in some areas of the UK to help improve dental health. Nitrates and nitrites might be present from agricultural run-off, but their levels are strictly regulated to ensure safety.

Each of these additions serves a specific purpose, either to enhance the health benefits of the water or to ensure its safety by eliminating harmful bacteria or pathogens. Despite the presence of these minerals and chemicals, the UK's tap water is safe to drink due to rigorous testing and regulations, ensuring that all elements are within safe consumption levels.

Tap water facts

1. Almost all of the tap water in the UK uses chemical disinfection

In the UK, tap water is treated with a chemical disinfectant to ensure it is safe and ready for public consumption. This process involves purposely adding chemicals such as chlorine or ultraviolet light to remove potentially harmful contaminants. Environmental health bodies regularly test tap water in the UK to confirm that it is safe for drinking. Chemical disinfection is also used abroad. However, countries may use different techniques according to their geography and environment. Ultimately, chemical disinfection makes the world's tap water a much safer and healthier option than many other sources of liquid refreshment.

2. Limescale is common in tap water from areas with hard water

Living in an area with hard water can be a headache for many UK residents. One of the most frustrating manifestations of hard water is limescale – mineral deposits that form when hard water evaporates. Limescale is easily recognizable, often appearing as white or yellowish spots on bathroom fixtures, dishwashers, and other appliances that come into contact with tap water.

While limescale itself isn't a health hazard, it can decrease the efficiency of your household appliances and make them harder to clean over time. To minimise the buildup of limescale and protect your appliances from damage caused by its formation, invest in a good quality filter for your taps and periodically descale your washing machine using citric acid or vinegar.

3. Scotland was found to have the best-tasting tap water in the UK

The folks in Scotland have the bragging rights for having the best tap water in the UK. That's right - the different tap waters of the British Isles have been tested and it has been determined that Scottish tap water is tops. And Scotland has a good reason to be proud; with its commitment to protecting and maintaining checkups on the quality of its water, it's no surprise that Scotland comes out on top as the source of the best-tasting tap water in the United Kingdom.

4. Only 30,000 UK homes aren't connected to mains water

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the UK has made tremendous strides in ensuring that every home has access to clean drinking water. Although it is a developed country, only 30,000 homes remain which are not connected to mains water. Thanks to significant investment and public awareness campaigns over the past few decades, this number is small compared to what it used to be.

It is also thanks to initiatives such as hosepipe bans and updated plumbing systems ensuring water is distributed evenly throughout the country. For hard-to-reach locations, improvements in delivery systems have made it possible for almost everyone in the UK to access clean water with relative ease.

5. 99.96% of tap water meets the UK's quality standards

Drinking water in the UK is among the safest in the world, according to the Drinking Water Inspectorate. Their latest figures on public water supplies show that 99.96% meet the drinking water standards set by the UK government, making it one of the best countries for ensuring drinkable water quality. This is a testament to improved treatment methods, better management processes and rigorous testing procedures that have been put in place to ensure tap water is suitable for consumption.

With these standards being regularly monitored and updated - we can enjoy access to some of Europe's cleanest drinking sources in both rural and urban parts of Britain.

6. The average annual water bill for a UK home is £448

The cost of water bills in the UK can shock some, especially as the average annual charge of £448 is higher than in many other European countries. Such a price tag covers essential services like water supply and wastewater, as well as other amenities like maintaining the country's extensive network of sewers.

For example, teams of experts must regularly manage excess water buildup to minimize flooding incidents, which means that people in the UK can depend on a reliable drainage and waste removal system.

water kitchen tap












7. Calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulphate are all found in tap water

Tap water in the United Kingdom might not be something people think of when they talk about essential compounds, minerals and elements. Still, in reality, tap water contains some essential substances. Calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulphate are all found in tap water in the UK – each of these elements plays an important role in human health.

Calcium is important for healthy bones and teeth, while magnesium helps muscles and nerves work properly; sodium helps keep fluids balanced throughout the body, and sulphate can help create healthy digestive enzymes. All these components together ensure that UK citizens have clean, safe access to the vitamins and other vital compounds that their bodies need.

Tap vs filtered vs bottled water

Tap water flows in from sources like city reservoirs or rivers, scrubbed clean with chemicals such as chlorine to make it safe to sip. But beware, trace amounts of metals or bacteria might linger, slightly altering its taste and smell.

Next up, filtered water. Picture your tap or well water passing through a pitcher filter or a reverse osmosis system. What you get is a glass of water, stripped of unwanted pollutants but still rich in beneficial minerals like calcium and magnesium. But remember, these systems come with a price tag and need regular upkeep. Plus, patience will be your virtue as it might take a tad longer to fill your glass! A better alternative might be a 4-in-1 tap that has a filtered water option on it - saving you time compared to a countertop or in-fridge alternative that can take hours.

Finally, bottled water. Sourced from natural springs or underground aquifers, it offers the cleanest sip, free from environmental pollutants and added chemicals. But, it's a double-edged sword. It can burn a hole in your pocket and the plastic bottles, if not recycled, can be a planet's nightmare!

a brushed nickel tap inside a modern kitchen

Tap water FAQs

Where does tap water come from?

Tap water is an essential part of day-to-day living, used for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and more. But where does it come from? Tap water originates from a variety of sources. Most large towns and cities have dedicated water supply systems that draw from nearby rivers, lakes, or groundwater sources. This kind of collection is then treated at facilities to ensure its safety and purity before it is distributed throughout the town or city.

In the UK, water companies are responsible for making sure that the water is safe and fit for purpose. Every year, these companies must produce an Annual Water Quality Report where they detail where the water has come from and what it contains. These reports are available publicly and can help you understand where your tap water comes from.

Is tap water safe to drink in the UK?

Yes, tap water in the United Kingdom is generally considered safe to drink. The UK's water supply is among the safest worldwide, with strict regulations in place to maintain its quality. The water is routinely tested and regulated to ensure it is fit for human consumption. Some might notice a faint smell of chlorine, which is used in small, safe amounts to disinfect the water.

Despite regional differences in hardness due to varying calcium content, particularly in the southern part of the UK, these variations do not affect the water's safety. So, unless notified otherwise by your water provider, you can drink UK tap water with confidence.

Is tap water bad for you?

No, tap water in the UK is not bad for you. On the contrary, it's among the safest worldwide. The water companies in the UK adhere to stringent regulations to maintain its quality. The water undergoes rigorous, regular testing and treatment processes that ensure it is fit for consumption.

It's treated with safe levels of chlorine for disinfection, and any trace amounts of metals or bacteria are typically minuscule and not harmful. Furthermore, tap water contains essential minerals like calcium, magnesium, sodium, and sulphate, which are beneficial for health. Therefore, you can drink UK tap water without any concerns, unless advised otherwise by your water provider.

How does tap water reach your home?

Tap water in the United Kingdom reaches your home through a complex system of pipes and treatment facilities. The journey begins with the collection of water from various sources such as rivers, reservoirs, or underground wells across the UK. This water is then transported to water treatment plants where it undergoes rigorous purification and disinfection processes to ensure it's safe for consumption.

Once treated, the water is then distributed to households through an extensive network of water mains. Depending on the geographical layout and elevation, this water is either pumped or flows naturally due to gravity towards homes and businesses. Upon reaching your property, the water travels through a service pipe, typically ¾ inches or larger, which leads into your home and eventually to your tap.

While the exact process can vary based on local infrastructure and water source, every step is carefully monitored and regulated by the Drinking Water Inspectorate in the UK to ensure that the water reaching your tap is clean and safe to drink.

Why is my tap water cloudy?

Seeing cloudy water coming out of your tap can be a bit alarming. If you're wondering why this strange phenomenon is occurring, the answer could be due to changes in the piping system or some type of sediment buildup. Too much air may have recently been released from the pipes and, when combined with the pressure of flowing water, creates tiny bubbles. Or it could mean that some minerals have been dissolved in the water during its flow, creating a milky appearance.

In some cases, the cloudiness could be caused by pollutants or microorganisms in the water before it even reaches your home. The solution is to determine whether there are significant contaminants present that need to be addressed by your utility department or if they can simply be fixed by allowing air to escape from pipes at home.

Is tap water good for you?

Yes, drinking tap water is not only a practical and sustainable choice, but it also contributes positively to your health. Staying adequately hydrated through the consumption of water supports many vital bodily functions. It aids in digestion, helps maintain healthy skin, lubricates the joints, helps regulate body temperature, and facilitates nutrient absorption.

Moreover, water is essential for the proper circulation of nutrients in the body and the excretion of waste from the body. Furthermore, staying hydrated can improve concentration, energy levels, and even mood. So, drinking a regular intake of water, including from the tap, is essential for maintaining overall health and well-being.


Understanding where tap water comes from, what it contains, and why our tap water might look or taste funny can help us make better decisions about where we get our drinking water. Tap, filtered, and bottled water all have pros and cons depending on what is important to the individual. Ultimately, with proper filtration, good maintenance of pipes and plumbing, and adequate monitoring of pollutants, tap water can provide a safe, healthy source of drinking water for homes and businesses.

Our 4-in-1 taps come with an advanced filter designed to remove impurities and unwanted minerals from tap water, giving you crystal-clear filtered water straight from your tap. Find out more about how a boiling water tap works.

4 litre Tank Specification
Capacity: 4 ltrs
Width: 197 mm
Depth: 299.5 mm
Height: 272.5 mm
2.4 Litre Tank Specification
Capacity: 2.4 ltrs
Width: 188 mm
Depth: 188 mm
Height: 262 mm